Boone County Public Works Department

Traffic Safety Manual - Boone County, Missouri

 

4.0  PAVEMENT MARKINGS

The decisions regarding which routes should be provided with pavement markings will be based on detailed engineering analyses of traffic accidents, traffic volumes, roadway widths, and expected striping life.   Markings shall be yellow, white, red, or blue.   The colors for markings shall conform to the standard highway colors.   Black in conjunction with one of the above colors shall be a usable color for object markers.   All pavement markings will be installed in conformance with MUTCD.  

 

This section discusses center lines, passing zones, pavement edge lines, stop lines, crosswalk lines, and temporary pavement markings.   The MUTCD guidance will be used for any other marking situations, such as left turn lanes, when encountered.

4.1 Center Lines

Center line marking shall be used to delineate the separation of traffic lanes that have opposite direction of travel on a road and shall be yellow.   Center line markings are placed on paved roads under the following conditions (MUTCD, Section 3B.01):

 

1.   Center line markings shall be placed on all paved urban arterials and collectors that have a travel width of 20 feet or more and an Average Daily Traffic (ADT) of 4,000 vehicles per day or greater;

2.   Center line markings shall be placed on all paved rural arterials and collectors that have a traveled width of 18 feet or more and an ADT of 3,000 vehicles per day or greater;

3.   Center line markings may be placed on paved two-way traveled roads that are 16 feet or more in width and an ADT of 400 vehicles per day or greater.   Engineering judgment should be used in determining whether to place center line markings because of the potential for traffic encroaching on the pavement edges, traffic being affected by parked vehicles, and traffic encroaching into the opposite traffic lane; and

4.  At other locations where an engineering study indicates a need for center line markings.

 

The County may use center line markings on paved road wider than 16 feet with priority given to the following conditions:

 

  1. Speed limits;
  2. Horizontal and vertical curves;
  3. Average daily traffic volume; and
  4. Road classification.

 

The pavement width used in this analysis will be the predominant width, which exists along a segment of at least three miles in length.   The County will not provide center line markings for subdivisions roads.

 

The center line markings on two-lane, two-way roads shall be one of the following (MUTCD, Section 3B.01):

 

1.  Two-direction passing zone marking of a normal broken yellow line where crossing the center line markings for passing with care is permitted for traffic traveling in either direction;

2.   One-direction no-passing zone markings consisting of a normal broken yellow line and a normal solid yellow line where crossing the center line marking for passing with care is permitted for the traffic traveling adjacent to the broken line, but is prohibited for traffic traveling adjacent to the solid line; or

3.  Two-direction no-passing zone markings consisting of two normal solid yellow lines where crossing the center line markings for passing is prohibited for traffic traveling in either direction.

 

The center line markings on undivided two-way roads with four or more traffic lanes shall be the two-direction no-passing zone markings consisting of two normal solid yellow lines.   The lanes of the same direction of the same direction will be divided by normal broken white lines.

 

The width and pattern of the center line markings shall conform to the following standards (MUTCD, Section 3A.06):

 

1.  A normal solid yellow line shall be 4 to 6 inches wide, and

2.  A normal broken yellow line shall be 10 feet long line segments 4 to 6 inches wide with 30-foot gaps.

4.2   Passing Zones

Where center lines are installed, no-passing zones shall be established at vertical curves, horizontal curves, and other locations where an engineering study indicates passing must be prohibited.  

 

A no-passing zone on a horizontal curve or a vertical curve is warranted where the sight distance is less than the minimum passing sight distance as listed in Table 7.   The passing sight distance on a horizontal curve is the distance measured along the center line between two points 3.5 feet above the pavement on a line tangent to the embankment or other obstruction that restricts the view on the inside of the curve.   The passing sight distance on a vertical curve is the distance at which an object 3.5 feet above the pavement surface can just be seen from a point 3.5 feet above the pavement.   The speed is the prevailing off-peak 85 th -percentile speed or the posted speed limit, whichever is higher.   The no-passing zone should be marked where the sight distance is equal to or less the minimum passing sight distance.  

Table 7. Minimum Passing Sight Distance

 Speed

(mph)

Minimum Passing Sight Distance

(feet)

25

450

30

500

35

550

40

600

45

700

50

800

55

900

60

1,000

Source:   Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Millennium Edition. (Page 3B-9)

4.3 Pavement Edge Lines

Pavement edge line markings delineate the left or right edge of the road.   Edge line markings may be placed on roadway features such as horizontal curves, narrow bridges, pavement width transitions, and curvilinear alignments.   They have unique value as a visual reference for the guidance of drivers during adverse weather and visibility conditions.   Pavement edge lines on two-lane roadways shall be a solid white color and edge lines shall not be continued through intersections or be broken for driveway access.

 

Edge line markings may be placed on paved roads with following characteristics (MUTCD, Section 3B.07):

 

1.  Rural arterials and collectors with a traveled way of 20 feet or more in width and an ADT of 3,000 vehicles per day or greater;

2. At other paved streets and highways where an engineering study indicates a need for edge line markings; or

3.  Where edge delineation is desirable to minimize unnecessary driving on paved shoulders or on refuse areas that have lesser structural pavement strength than the adjacent roadway.

 

Edge line marking should not be placed where an engineering study indicates that providing them would decrease safety.  

4.4 Stop Lines

Stop lines are used in both rural and urban areas where it is important to emphasis the point behind which vehicles are required to stop in compliance with a STOP sign, traffic signal, or other legal requirement.   Stop lines are solid white lines, normally 12 to 24 inches wide, extending across all approach lanes.

 

Stop lines are placed at the desired stopping point and should be placed to allow sufficient sight distance for all approaches to an intersection.   The stop line should not be placed more than 30 feet or less than 4 feet from the nearest edge of the intersecting roadway.   If a stop line is used in conjunction with a STOP sign, it should be placed in line with the STOP sign.   However, if the sign cannot be located exactly where vehicles are expected to stop, the stop line should be placed at the stopping point.   Stop lines used in conjunction with a crosswalk are placed 4 feet in advance of and parallel to the nearest crosswalk line.

4.5 Crosswalk Lines

Crosswalk markings provide guidance for pedestrians crossing roads by defining and delineating paths.   Crosswalks are marked at intersections where there is substantial conflict between vehicle and pedestrian movements.   Marked crosswalks should also be provided at other appropriate points of pedestrian concentration.   At the non-intersection locations, crosswalk markings legally establish the crosswalk and are used to alert road users of pedestrian crossing point across roads not controlled by traffic stops.   An engineering study should be required before they are installed at locations away from intersections.

 

Crosswalk lines shall be solid white lines used to mark both edges of the crosswalk.   The minimum width of the crosswalk line shall be 6 inches and the crosswalk lines shall not be spaced less than 6 feet apart.   Under special circumstances where a stop line is not provided, where vehicular speeds exceed 35 miles per hour, or where crosswalks are unexpected, it may be desirable to increase the width of the crosswalk line up to 24 inches in width.   Crosswalk lines on both sides of the crosswalk should extend across the full width of the pavement to discourage diagonal walking between crosswalks.  

 

Since non-intersectional pedestrian crossings are generally unexpected by the motorist, warning signs should be installed and adequate visibility provided by parking prohibitions.

4.6 Temporary Pavement Markings

When newly paved roads that warrant pavement markings are open to traffic prior to receiving permanent pavement marking, temporary pavement markings shall be used to delineate the separation of two-way traffic.   The temporary pavement markings shall consist of raised pavement markers with a height of at least 0.4 inches mounted on the road surface.   The temporary pavement markings shall be reflective and the color shall conform to the color of the marking for which they substitute.   The distance between each temporary pavement marking shall be 25 feet.

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Last Updated: December 27, 2010